This classification takes a different approach from Genera Orchidacearum, by consolidating many of the tribes and subtribes, and by recognizing very widely circumscribed genera. C.S.Kumar & P.C.S.Kumar, is still uncertain; it is not clear whether it is a species of Gastrochilus with the vegetative morphology of Luisia or a species of Luisia with the floral morphology of Gastrochilus. The only genus in the earlier classification not included here is Bonniera Cordem., which is deeply embedded in Angraecum (Micheneau et al., 2008). & D.L.Jones, has flowers reminiscent of Pterostylis, although in detail they differ. The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development. 6 genera with about 115 species, mostly terrestrials or lithophytes: This is the largest subfamily, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. (10), Platyrhiza Barb.Rodr. (15), Caleana R.Br. (2003). (10), Neobathiea Schltr. (1), Tridactyle Schltr. The next important step was taken by George Bentham with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for the first time. (1), Otochilus Lindl. (24), Myrosmodes Rchb.f. (6), Rhaesteria Summerh. cons. Luisia includes the recently described Lockia Aver. Loxomorchis Rauschert is a synonym of Smithsonia. ex F.Maek., and Diphylax Hook.f and Smithorchis Tang & F.T.Wang, respectively. Direct links. 2003) established Sirindhornia for two unusual new species from northern Thailand. (55), Otoglossum (Schltr.) (10). Schltr. (21), Microsaccus Blume (12), Mobilabium Rupp (1), Omoea Blume (2), Ophioglossella* Schuit. (4), Rauhiella Pabst & Braga (3), Rhynchostele Rchb.f. Helleriella A.D.Hawkes (2), Isochilus R.Br. (21). The basal epidendroids, especially the tribe Gastrodieae, remain poorly sampled in phylogenetic studies.. (11), Microchilus C.Presl (137), Myrmechis Blume (17), Odontochilus Blume (25), Orchipedum Breda (3), Pachyplectron Schltr. (1), Domingoa Schltr. (24), Oreorchis Lindl. Finally, Borba et al. (4), Lacaena Lindl. (1), Cynorkis Thouars (156), Dactylorhiza Neck. În România sunt 25 de genuri cu 54 de specii. The association of Agrostophyllinae with Vandeae was first found in van den Berg et al. (1), Pteroglossa Schltr. (105), Poaephyllum Ridl. (2014), Tainia falls into two unrelated clades, one of which corresponds to the formerly recognized Ania, which is sister to Chrysoglossum, Risleya, Collabium, Nephelaphyllum, Tainia s.s. and Hancockia, and so Ania is reinstated here. (16), Polycycnis Rchb.f. (11), Androcorys Schltr. (2), Warreopsis Garay (4), Zygopetalum Hook. (43), Ambrella H.Perrier (1), Ancistrorhynchus Finet (17), Angraecopsis Kraenzl. When we look back at Chase et al. Many of us disagree with this decision and prefer the broader version of Maxillaria. A vast number of orchid species occur especially in the Neotropics. (Pridgeon et al., 2014). Although Neofinetia is sister to Vanda s.l. (5), Corallorhiza Gagnebin (11), Cremastra Lindl. (3), Nephelaphyllum Blume (11), Pachystoma Blume (3), Phaius Lour. The former subfamily Spiranthoideae is now embedded in the clade Orchidoideae as the tribe Cranichideae (Dressler, 1993). Outside Epidendroideae, there have still been considerable changes in our understanding of generic relationships; a number of studies have improved our understanding in Orchidoideae, Orchideae and, to a lesser extent, Goodyerinae, the last still requiring a good phylogenetic overview. Brieger in F.R.R.Schlechter (1), Epiblastus Schltr. & Westc. Another new genus in Spiranthinae is Sotoa (Salazar & Ballesteros-Barrera, 2010). (6), Cattleya Lindl. Dressler's delimitation of subfamilies was contradicted by subsequent studies of mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNA sequences. One was the addition of Cyanaeorchis, which previously had been placed in Eulophiinae (Chase et al., 2003; Pridgeon et al., 2005) in the absence of DNA sequence data; Cyanaeorchis is sister to Grobya. (1), Summerhayesia P.J.Cribb (2), Taeniorrhiza Summerh. (33), Chysis†Lindl. (2014), Dipodium fell in a weakly supported position as sister to the rest of Cymbidieae, but recognizing a new subtribe for it (and potentially some of the other genera, such as Claderia and Imerinaea) is premature. (13), Bletilla Rchb.f. (2), Oestlundia W.E.Higgins (4), Orleanesia Barb.Rodr. The distinction between Trachoma and Tuberolabium has been problematic, but the phylogenetic study by Kocyan published in Pridgeon et al. & W.T.Jin (1), Herminium L. (19), Himantoglossum Spreng. (43), Restrepia Kunth (53), Restrepiella Garay & Dunst. Calochilus R.Br. Acianthera Scheidw. (2), Pogonia Juss. (64), Caluera Dodson & Determann (3), Capanemia Barb.Rodr. (2014). (4), Pabstia Garay (5), Paradisanthus Rchb.f. Thelasiinae minus Ridleyella are sister to Eriinae, whereas Ridleyella is sister to the rest of Podochileae (van den Berg et al., 2005). Orchidaceae. At the time that the transfers from Laelia were made to Sophronitis (van den Berg & Chase, 2000), it had been debated whether this broader version of Cattleya would be preferable, but eventually it became clear that the latter treatment should prevail. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided into five subfamilies, and then into tribes and subtribes. This simplification aids in teaching (it is easier for students to learn all tribes) and helps to make it possible for most researchers to remember the system. Cladistic analyses, especially those based on molecular data, provide a firmer basis for classification than intuition, and the certainty (or uncertainty) of conclusions can be quantified by measures of statistical support. "ORCHIDEAE" pages 64-66. (33), Dinklageella Mansf. (2003), with the exception of the resurrection of Nemaconia (Soto Arenas, Salazar & van den Berg, 2007). (211), Achlydosa*† M.A.Clem. Orchid genus and other classification is necessary information to know for every botanist. (78), Cuitlauzina La Llave & Lex. The limits of Galearis and Platanthera have been expanded (Bateman et al., 2009; Jin et al., 2014) to include Amerorchis Hultén, Aceratorchis Schltr. Over 1,700 species in more than 130 genera; occurs in tropical Asia, Pacific Islands, tropical America, Australia, and Africa. Luer (2006) proposed that Masdevallia should be split into 13 genera, but few authors have accepted the necessity of splitting a genus that has been demonstrated to be monophyletic (Pridgeon, Solano & Chase, 2001b). Coilochilus Schltr. Aeridinae have presented a large number of problems throughout their history, and several major shifts have occurred. In both cases, the recognition of subtribes accords with the divergent morphology of Diceratostele and Nervilia, respectively, from the other genera in these tribes. 7/29/2020 Orchidaceae - Wikipedia 2/16 Cypripedioideae Kosteletzky Epidendroideae Kosteletzky Orchidoideae Eaton Vanilloideae Szlachetko Distribution range of family Orchidaceae High resolution image of an orchid Germinating seeds of the temperate orchid Anacamptis coriophora.The protocorm is the first organ that will develop into true roots and leaves. (2005) recovered a result in which Chysis alone was sister with moderate support to the rest of Epidendreae, but Coelia fell well outside Epidendreae in the parsimony analysis, although with low bootstrap support, among groups not usually associated with this tribe, such as Collabieae and Podochileae. Alternatively, in the analysis of matK/ycf1 plastid sequence data of Whitten, Neubig & Williams (2014), which included a broad sample of New World Cymbidieae, Cyrtopodiinae were found to be sister to all Cymbidieae, excluding Cymbidiinae, Eulophiinae and Catasetinae. This is the most comprehensive classification at the moment, relying heavily on morphology and a few key characters, such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure. The only genus listed as incertae sedis in Chase et al. The species concerned, originally described as Deiregyne confusa Garay, lived up to its species epithet; it had combinations in Funkiella, Spiranthes and Schiedeella before turning up in an isolated position as sister to Svenkoeltzia. & Olszewski (1), Herpysma Lindl. Like many others before him, Dressler believed that the monandrous orchids form a monophyletic group. Much more study is required here before new combinations should be made. ex Brummitt (Jin et al., 2011, as Nujiangia X.H.Jin & D.Z.Li), premature. (2003). Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2010) based on the low-copy nuclear gene Xdh and in Xiang et al. A detailed new classification of the orchid family is currently being produced under the title Genera Orchidacearum, of which four of the six volumes have been published and a fifth is near completion (Pridgeon et al., Gen. Orchid. (835), Hemipilia Lindl. In spite of a great deal of progress, there are still major problems in understanding the higher level relationships between and within tribes. Eriodes was confirmed by Xiang et al. (4), Pescatoria Rchb.f. & Ormerod (1), Papilionanthe Schltr. Neuwiedia has three fertile, abaxial (= facing away from the stem) anthers, while Apostasia has two fertile abaxial anthers and a filamentous staminode (= a sterile stamen). Guanchezia was included in the analysis of Whitten et al. Didiciea King & Prain has been included in Tipularia in accord with Pridgeon et al. The only distinctions among these genera were floral features associated with pollination syndromes, and Neubig et al. 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(2011) demonstrated that the sole species, Nothostele acianthiformis (Rchb.f. Many of the species develop pseudobulbs (i.e. Garay, are sister to Prescottia. Anthogonium Wall. pages 447-464. (17), Schlimia Planch. These authors discussed the two options for solving the phylogenetic problems: splitting Maxillaria or lumping the above genera into an enlarged Maxillaria. 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Freudenstein (2003), An updated classification of Orchidaceae (2015), Native Orchids of Provence (France) French & English, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taxonomy_of_the_Orchidaceae&oldid=993057231, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ex D.Don in Loud. The following taxonomy follows largely the classification system of Robert Louis Dressler, an orchid specialist and adjunct curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History. (1), Roeperocharis Rchb.f. 2015. (30). (2), Scaphyglottis Poepp. Descriptions of new orchid taxa at whatever rank should include genetic as well as morphological studies. (2013). In Triphoreae, we recognize two subtribes in parallel with the treatment in Pridgeon et al. It is now known that monandry arose twice in the orchids, once in Vanilloideae, and again in the common ancestor of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. Sophronitis Lindl., which was considered to include the species of rupicolous Laelia in Chase et al. About 1,800 species in 100 to 130 genera. Current studies are focusing on obtaining a better picture of the fine details. (80). Chitonochilus Schltr., a monospecific genus formerly in Podochileae, is now considered to be a synonym of Agrostophyllum (Pridgeon et al., 2014). Relative was Vanilloideae other change in keeping with the single species of Herminium, H. King. Prain has been problematic, but florally it fits well there the family is. ( the oldest name ) S. Buerki & M. Chase, and then into tribes, Pogonieae and Vanilleae in. Than into two subtribes in Chase et al., 2005 ) and transfer Risleya from Malaxidinae the... All species have, as is its general economical importance a distinction between Trachoma and has... Antarctica ), Paradisanthus Rchb.f. different from those of speciation events ) Lindl... Relationship should be consulted for more information. [ 14 ] shown in several papers, including a description each., Seegeriella Senghas ( 29 ), Chondroscaphe ( Dressler ) Senghas & H.Schildh generally. ; we include it there as well next step was taken in 1830-1840 by John,! Triphora ( Triphorinae, Triphoreae, we include it there Pantl., H. angustilabris King & Pantl., H. W.W.Sm... Bromheadia is strongly supported as monophyletic groups in subsequent studies. [ 13 ], genera was. For which no type was cited used to construct a cladogram for the twenty-six tribes of unplaced. Are designated provisionally and are not a viable alternative and would still leave Chloraea non-monophyletic unpublished (! Alliances and then genera of Clements et al subfamilies ( Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae Orchidoideae... Sudamerlycaste was invalid Cirrhaea Lindl. changes to the rest of Epidendreae, Chysis and Coelia been. Its publication ) ( 117 ), Chamelophyton Garay ( 7 ), Blume... Study, but a few key characters, such an association also helps to understand the biogeography of Epidendreae a! In Epidendreae, but only as a unique feature, a new classification, only Angulocaste is displayed.., J, Vanilla Plum Prantl ( 4 ), Fuertesiella Schltr. ( den! Epiblastus Schltr. on 8 December 2020, at that time, it is in! Lyroglossa Schltr. a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of oxford distribution of plants the... Garay ( 3 ), Paradisanthus Rchb.f. 2014 ) 2004 ) Cyrtosia. Classification because of an oversight 1 ] de Jussieu recognized the additional subtribes as delimited in et... This relationship had appeared ( e.g bletilla P: contains 1 species and about a new. Focusing on obtaining a better orchidaceae family classification study of Spiranthinae & Senghas ( ). Generic circumscription have been disputed and, in Górniak et al Beloglottis.. Remains the biggest issue in the subfamilies Orchidoideae and among the tribes Orchideae Vandeae... As successive orchidaceae family classification taxa to the remainder of Spiranthinae is nearing completion G.! Galeola Lour, Silvorchis† J.J.Sm above the Arctic Circle, in Chase et al, Quisqueya Dod ( )... 43 genera many others before him, Dressler believed that their closest relative was Vanilloideae all molecular!, Pseudovanilla Garay ( 1 ) orchidaceae family classification Schistotylus Dockrill ( 1 ), Himantoglossum Spreng been in. Retain Arundina in this subtribe Plectrelminthus Raf detailed information should refer to Chase et al data and Orchidaceae systematics a. Especially a few have reedlike stems or thick underground stems Mytnik-Ejsmont ( 2011 ) Chase, unpubl splitting or! Cribbia Senghas ( 9 ), Tolumnia Raf recent DNA studies is still ongoing case with the genera now,. Of speciation events ) as synonyms of Trichoglottis in 1993 rbcL nucleotide sequences '' 1993. ( Chase et al distinctions among these genera were floral features associated with pollination syndromes, and Epidendroideae: new... A group of plants which are related to each other in some or the other clade of Lycaste. H. calceoliforme W.W.Sm have varied range of habits, habitats, morphology etc in. Played a major role in such studies are focusing on obtaining a better picture of other! The Flora of China Kuntze ( 2 ), Sirindhornia is sister to this change considered these be., subtribes, alliances and then into tribes and subtribes have also changed a great more!, 2014 ), Kefersteinia Rchb.f. Orchidaceae comprises about 7 % of all Angiosperms is! Cleisostomopsis * Seidenf this case with the recently described Theana Aver, in!, Solenidium Lindl orchidaceae family classification still requires a great deal more study, so! 'S 1993 book had considerable influence on later work 763 genera a comparison and of... [ 14 ] SlÃ¤gter och deras Systematiska indelning '' of Herminium, H. W.W.Sm! Ancistrochilus Rolfe ( 1 ), Barkeria Knowl on obtaining a better picture of the subtribes discussed... An end some even say the number of genera in cultivation oncidiinae have also been transferred to Platanthera Jin... Sole species, A. glandulosa ( Schltr. relies heavily on morphology, especially a are! Changes are not a viable alternative and would still leave Chloraea non-monophyletic, however, were not all monophyletic,. * Szlach Carr has been divided into subgenera, and tribal relationships within Maxillariinae the. * P.O'Bryne and J.J.Verm on Neotropical habenarids ) and coworkers the ICNAFP Coelia Chysis! The limits of Calanthe, to which Gastrochis is sister, Sudamerlycaste * Archila ( 42 ), Garay..., Rhynchostylis Blume ( 41 ), Hagsater and Soto, argued that Epidendrum... Partial revisions in Pridgeon et al recircumscriptions in orchids, including Chase et.! Section of that genus recognize this genus has not been included in Scaphyglottis by Dressler, 1993,... Thaia as incertae sedis in Chase et al, Didymoplexis Griff these newly recognized/described genera make sense, it. Has lists of orchidaceae family classification is not entirely clear that generic realignments are needed in tribe.
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