A Review of the Literature Child labor is one of the many different types of child abuse. The extraction form was piloted to ensure standardization of data collection. 1) shows the studies selection process. Studies that met the following criteria were considered eligible: sample age 18 years or less; study was conducted in LMICs; and quantitative data was reported. Retrieved November 8 2018, from https://www.newlanark.org/uploads/Reasons for CHILD LABOUR.pdf, ILO. and World Bank in terms of international labour standards and human rights conventions. Literature Review Child Labor is one of the major consequences that results of poverty. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263275832_Socioeconomic_impacts_of_child_labou, How well GDP measures the well-being of society. Since 2000, governments have increased the number of children in school by 110 million, making it much less likely those children will end up in the labor market. to exclude studies related to ‘medical child labor’ as in childbirth. (22 March 2017) Common social policy interventions can reduce child labor, but may also have unintended consequences. This literature review will look into the child labor laws in India, the economy of India and how the child laborers affect it, and the different points of views on the issue. Hughes K, Bellis MA, Hardcastle KA et al. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. child labour which made it difficult to tackle the issue of child labour in Tanzania also the main causes and types of child labour in Rufiji district were poverty, cultural beliefs lack of education, inaccessibility of school skill acquisition, low payment Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02.3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. This paper exposes the reality of why kids may actively participate. SDQ and coping efficacy scale for children, Age, gender, ethnicity, religion, grade attained, self-reporting questionnaire for children, diagnostic interview for children and adolescents, Age, gender, ethnicity, education, anthropometric measures, family background, work pattern and earnings, Abuse, stunting, wasting and malnutrition, Age, type of work, place of work, educational status, maternal and paternal education, working hours, number of jobs, years of employment, Demographics, SDQ scale, decision to start working, atmosphere at work place, total monthly salary, household income, number of earning members and family atmosphere, Peer problems, emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, pro-social behavior, Age, sex, educational status, parental education, type of job, income, physical examination, blood tests including Hb, anthropometric measures, Presence of various diseases (anemia, vitamin deficiencies, infections, systematic diseases), abuse, Father’s education, mother’s education, family income, child’s education, mother’s occupation, father’s occupation, Physical health (musculoskeletal disorders), Age, gender, smoking, school attendance, sports activities, use of computer/video games/television, domestic activities, care of other children, and care of sick/elderly family members, work activities and workloads, Sex, age, education, economic status, ethnicity, religion, place of birth, parents’ marital status and occupation, family size and history of migration, types of child labor, time spent at work, age work started, any benefit obtained and how it was spent, rate of changing workplace and the underlying reasons for entering the labor force, and number of people the child supported from the generated income, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and neglect, Emotional and behavioral disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders, Age, gender, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, smoking, parents’ drug use, sexual abuse, sexual contact, sex trading, Age, gender, educational status, education and occupation of the father, and the amount of land owned by the family, Physical abuse, sexual abuse, financial exploitation, over burden and forced work, Age, gender, school grade, types of child labor if working, time spent at work, age work started, and the underlying reasons for entering the labor force, medical and surgical history; visits to health clinics, health providers, and hospital emergency, inpatient, and outpatient departments; and general health assessment, psychosocial, substance abuse, and sexual behaviors, anger expression/out, anger in/hostility, anger control/suppression, Physical health (represented in symptoms/illnesses)/psychological health (loneliness, depression, problems with family, law or employer) and risk behaviors (smoking, drugs use), Age, sex, worker status, anatomic site of injury, place of employment, mechanism of injury, Age, nature of work, clinical examination, monthly wage, exposure to dangerous environment at work and chronic symptoms that children were suffering from, father’s profession, family size and income, History and type of physical injuries, illnesses/symptoms based on the clinical examination and history, Age, gender, education, mother’s education, father’s education, family size, smoking, drug abuse, clinical examination, anthropometric measures, Health (vitamin deficiencies, anemia, chest symptoms), risk behaviors (smoking, drug abuse), physical injuries, Age, education, father’s occupation/education, mother’s occupation/education, no. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. (n.d.). Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. The outcomes were measured based on self-reporting and using validated measures, for example, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), in local languages. Diss. Long working hours have been associated with poorer physical outcomes.18, 19, 25, 26, 35 It was also reported that the likelihood of being sexually abused increased with increasing working hours.34 The different types and sectors of labor were found to be associated with different health outcomes as well.13, 18, 24 However, comparing between the different types of labor was not possible due to lack of data. We retrieved 1050 studies on PubMed and 833 studies on Science Direct, with no duplicates in the search results. Malnutrition and poor growth were reported to be highly prevalent among working children. Poverty is one of the top reasons why children work in inappropriate jobs for their age. A similar study conducted in India compared physical growth and genital development between working and non-working children and reported that child labor is associated with lower BMI, shorter stature and delayed genital development in working boys, while no significant differences were found among females.12, Concerning work-related illnesses and injuries, a study conducted in Bangladesh reported that there is a statistically significant positive association between child labor and the probability to report any injury or illness, tiredness/exhaustion, body injury and other health problems. Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. With children working full-time jobs it has a negative impact on school attendance. We can create an original paper just for you! This push onto the street causes kids to make early independent decisions, such as finding a job. Under this assumption of a deduction in child labour both in the informal and formal economy, can leads to a demand for more schooling, which is not automatic (Galli,2001). 2014). The Nature and Magnitude of Child Labor 3. Samonova Elena gives the example of a study by Edmons and Pavchnick who found that of rural Vietnam claims that 75% of cross-country variations of child labour can be explained by income variations and conclude that child labour is a symptom of poverty. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.unicef.org/sowc07/docs/sowc07_panel_3_3.pdf, Progress Slows in Ending Child Labor. The likelihood of being HIV positive among working children of Tehran was increased by factors like having experience in trading sex, having parents who used drugs or parents infected with HCV. 5. Of these 250 million, 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% are in Latin America (Sharma and Bhatia,2009). Younger children were more likely to suffer from backaches and other health problems (infection, burns and lung diseases), while probability of reporting tiredness/exhaustion was greater in the oldest age group. In Morocco, for example, payments of just US$7 a month per child helped reduce child labor rates by one third. Policy Intervention 6. that their findings could have been tampered by selection bias or healthy worker effect. Payton Gibson from Layton was looking for literature review of child labour Jay Brown found the answer to a search query literature review of child labour Find a professional expert who will write my essay by the deadline following all necessary requirements and instructions. Among the included studies ten documented only prevalence estimates of physical diseases, six documented mental and psychosocial health including abuse, and nine reported the prevalence of both mental and physical health impacts (Table 1). Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children/Sex Trafficking.) Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW Child labour is rampant in Ethiopia and its children are generally working- children, despite laws and regulations that prohibit children from engaging in exploitative work detrimental to their physical, mental and social development. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. This definition presents a much more widespread picture of the phenomenon of child and youth labor and much higher absolute numbers of children and youth who devote long hours to activities that are likely to impair their possibility of attending school. Young girls tend to start working at a much younger age than boys do as well because of traditional gender roles. By reviewing title and abstract, 1879 studies were excluded. With the renewed interest in child labour as an economic and social problem, researchers have attempted to assess its linkages to the core elements of human capital, hoping to solve continuing riddles in development policy and improve the quality of life for the world¿s … Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/macroeconomics/macro-economic-indicators-and-the-business-cycle/macro-limitations-of-gdp/a/how-well-gdp-measures-the-well-being-of-society-cnx, Shah, P. (n.d.). To understand the situation around child labor in Vietnam, Athena recently conducted field research and mapping around the ‘5 Ps’. Furthermore, the frequency of reporting any injury or illness increases with the number of hours worked, with significant variation across employment sectors.13 A study in Iran reported that industrial workrooms were the most common place for injury (58.2%). In 1932, the year M.P was born, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression and just a few years away from the start of World War II. These include children working as child minders, maids, cooks, cleaners, gardeners and general house-helps. Workers in manufacturing had a significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal pain and back pain, while child workers in domestic services had 17% more musculoskeletal pain and 23% more back pain than non-workers. Research into the impacts of child labor suggests several associations between child labor and adverse health outcomes. Khouzam discusses the issue of child labor in his show, which was viewed in Al Hurra TV channel. Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. (n.d.). literature review on the effect of child abuse on the academic performance of secondary school pupils Child abuse or child labour are becoming a universal phenomenon in the current world societies despite the fact that child’s rights are being recognized and to some extent, protected by legislations and constitutions in many country/countries of the world. After full assessment of the remaining studies, 25 were included. We also retrieved 23 studies through screening of the references, following the screening by title of retrieved studies. Eight studies measured physical health effects through clinical examination or blood samples, in addition to self-reported questionnaires. Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. Study on child labour in automobile workshops of Peshawar, Pakistan. Studies were ranked accordingly (poor, fair, good) (Table 1). Conclusion * Background paper for the 1995 World Development Report, on Labor. Khan H, Hameed A, Afridi AK. Under the government's close supervision, this needs to stop happening. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, A systematic review of interventions to link families with preschool children from healthcare services to community-based support, Collective control, social cohesion and health and well-being: baseline survey results from the communities in control study in England, Frailty, sarcopenia, cachexia and malnutrition as comorbid conditions and their associations with mortality: a prospective study from UK Biobank, Technology addiction among school-going adolescents in India: epidemiological analysis from a cluster survey for strengthening adolescent health programs at district level, About the Faculty of Public Health of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Review of policies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in 49 low- and middle-income countries, Opportunities for reducing morbidity and mortality due to leading cancers in a developing country, The effects of smokeless cookstoves on peak expiratory flow rates in rural Honduras, Cochrane update: identifying health-related research resources relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Roggero P, Mangiaterra V, Bustreo F et al. The next step would be to implement a strong set of effective laws and enforce penalties for people continuing to exploit children. Child labor was part of the Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 191 nations in 20 005 to be achieved by 2015. As per ILO the term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228426229_The_Economic_Impact_of_Child_Labour, The economic impact of child labour. We have experts for any subject. Though previous systematic reviews conducted on the topic in 19 971 and 20 078 reported outcomes in different measures, our findings reflect similar severity of the health impacts of child labor. (n.d.). But you can one from professional essay writers. Literature Review. Review begins discussing on We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed. In 2015 in Ghana, 91.8% (or a total of 878,595) of the children working in the cocoa sector were involved in a form of hazardous work. Sometimes this is not an ideal situation there is a period of transition to take place. The International Labor Organization (ILO) describes child labor as ‘work that deprives children of their childhood, potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development’.2 This definition includes types of work that are mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children; or disrupts schooling. Those more fortunate created this identity and do nothing to help them. Literature Review of Child Labour This comprehensive literature review of child labour summarises the literature on child time allocation, the types of work children participate in, the impact of work on schooling, health, and externalities associated with child work. Cuts (49.6%) were the most commonly reported injuries.14, Other studies that investigated the prevalence of general symptoms in working children in Pakistan, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Indonesia reported that child labor is negatively associated with health.15–19 Watery eyes, chronic cough and diarrhea were common findings, in addition to history of a major injury (permanent loss of an organ, hearing loss, bone fractures, permanent disability).20 One study, conducted in India reported that working children suffered from anemia, gastrointestinal tract infections, vitamin deficiencies, respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and high prevalence of malnutrition.21 Another study—of poor quality—in India reported that child labor was associated with higher incidence of infectious diseases compared to non-working children.22, Only a few studies focused on specific diseases. The authors would like to thank Through a comprehensive systematic review, we conclude that child labor continues to be a major public health challenge. While some work to assist their families, others work to pay for their own education. gives the example that in Egypt girls are expected to do the majority of work in the home, in the Dominican Republic are compelled to look after their siblings as well as maintain a household. Reviewing roughly 13 sources, this paper explains the effects of child labor affecting 250 million kids globally, child labor is an endangerment to society (Elena,2014). This paper is written to introduce major discussions and literature on the determinants of out-of-school children in developing countries in terms of poverty, gender, child labor, conflict-affected fragile states and partly with focus on disabilities. The first step to ending child labor is increase attendance in schools, as attendance increases child labor will decrease. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. A lot of these barriers affect individuals of all ages; however, youth in Canada are the ones at the most significant risk from being affected [...]. Two studies were concerned with physical growth and development. To our knowledge, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive summary of both the physical and mental health impacts of child labor. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. On top of malnutrition, the nature of labor has its effects on child’s health. In 38.6% of assault cases, the assailant was a customer. India and Child Labor India is a developing country, according to the CIA’s The World Fact Book (2011). Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? The stark difference between these two studies could be due to the explanation provided by Alem et al., i.e. This reflects a failure of policies not only to eliminate child labor, but also to make it safer. November 2008 . Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. Fassa AG, Facchini LA, Dall’Agnol MM et al. Families that battle with financial duties, cannot cope with the persistent demand for their children, and neglect to even provide adequate nutrition. A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. The literature review. Although no cause–effect relation can be established, as all studies included are cross-sectional, studies documented higher prevalence of different health issues in working children compared to control groups or general population. Retrieved November 9, 2018, from https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-labor, Impact of Life Expectancy on Economics Growth and Health … (n.d.). If children do not have the opportunity to attend school, they will never escape poverty and never achieve upward social mobility. The year 2025 is the year that the ILO has set to end child labor globally, which is a part of the Sustainable Development Goals, but it is struggling to meet their demands because of the slow rates. Moreover, the databases used might introduce bias as most of the studies indexed by them are from industrialized countries. This is an issue for most developing countries, it would also be necessary for the states to make sure schools are in good quality, and the curriculum would need to be ideal for attendees. literature review on . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. People of all ages, races, gender and religions can be impacted by homelessness. Address correspondence to Abdalla Ibrahim, E-mail: Search for other works by this author on: Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, USA, Jazan University, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Division of Global Neurosurgey and Neurology, Duke University, Durham, USA, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, USA, Child labor. Children’s Manifest Anxiety Questionnaire, the Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Esteem Inventory, Social life and habits, nutritional habits, recent complaints (last 2 weeks), chronic illnesses, health during the last year, anxiety, hopelessness, self-esteem, Age, gender, working lives, workplace characteristics, family income, family status including number of siblings and parents, Physical, emotional and sexual abuse, as well as physical neglect, Developing countries according to the WB classification, Gender, adult mortality rate for men, adult mortality rate for women, percentage of the population below the poverty line, percentage of adults infected with HIV/AIDS, percentage of the population undernourished, percentage of children aged 10–14 years who were workers (child labor prevalence), The mortality rate among boys aged 10–14 years, the mortality rate among girls aged 10–14 years, and the percentage of the population aged 10–14 years undernourished, Age, gender, employment duration, working hours, Age, duration of employment, working hours per day, reasons for working, Systematic symptoms including respiratory, GIT, Musculoskeletal, skin and CNS symptoms, Eye strain and repeated injury, Physical health (respiratory morbidities), Age, sex, daily working hours, and duration of exposure, X-ray, Respiratory morbidities (TB, Hilar gland enlargement/calcification), Copyright © 2021 Faculty of Public Health. Unstable housing is one of the major contributing factors, as to why [...], Homelessness is a problem that can be seen when looking just below the surface of the many social problems our country has. Working children are subjected to higher levels of physical and mental stress compared to non-working children and adults performing the same type of work. Since then, an increasing number of studies have used similar methods to assess the health impacts of child labor. The International Labor Organization (ILO) says there is strong evidence that there is some correlation between household poverty and child labor. Required fields help reduce the amount of missing information needed to process each request. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. Banerjee SR, Bharati P, Vasulu TS et al. 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